Honey is the sweetest natural food, bees harvest this sweetest food from the nectar of flowers and plants. Bees collect this sweet substance and collect it with the exact materials from their store, clean, leave in the honey comb to ripen and ripen (White and Doner, 1980). Honey in Pakistan is mainly monosaccharides glucose and fructose but it also includes pigments from waxes, minerals, aromatic substances, amino acids proline and grains of pollen. However, the presence of other components such as vitamins, enzymes and other components in honey has been described by various researchers (Coco et al., 1996). Honey is a supersaturated sweet natural viscose liquid, about 200 substances have been reported in the natural liquid of honey, but the composition of honey, in particular its secondary metabolites, the quality of honey can be modified by external factors, factors seasonal and environmental, storage, processing and handling . The main substances in honey are sugars (glucose 31%, fructose 38%), vitamins (ascorbic acid), moisture (10-20%), minerals (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, organic acids (gluconic and acetic acid) acid). The different amount of major minerals and traces present in honey, which depends on the layout of the soil, many types of minerals, flowering plants penetrate the plants through the roots and reach the nectar, then finally reaches the honey (Anklam, 1998). Other factors, environmental pollution, beekeeping practices, honey processing contribute to the mineral content of honey (Pohl, 2009). The content of minerals also depends on the geographical area, climatic conditions and floral sources, iron and copper also have antioxidant or reducing properties.
Trace elements are useful if they are present in low concentrations, but higher levels of trace elements contribute to harmful effects in humans. Mineral toxicity can occur due to the inability of minerals to be fully metabolized by the human body, leading to collection in animals or human tissue without being completely destroyed or inactivated (Ajibola et al., 2012). Trace elements that have caused health problems include respiratory problems, headaches, metabolic abnormalities, vomiting and nausea. For example, lead (Pb) can damage the human nervous system, the brain, the kidneys and red blood cells. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and the Register of Diseases, dangerous trace elements include Pb, Cd and As, arsenic poisoning is relatively less common in honey due to use less honey, but contamination with Pb and Cd is commonly reported (Bogdanov, 2006). Honey contains minerals, the number of their contents varies according to the geographical and botanical origins of honey. The publication reported some research on the mineral contents of honey, which include the main minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, P, S) and trace elements (Zn, Al, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Tl, Co, Rb, Ni, Ba, Bi, Be, Pt, V, Pd, U, Fe, Te, Mo, Hf, Sb, Sn, La, Sm, I, Tb, Dy, Th, Sd, Nd, Pr, Lu, Yb, Gd, Er, Ho, Ce, Cr, B, As, Br, Cd, Se, Hg and Sr (Tuzen and Soylak, 2005; Devillers et al., 2002; Birge and Price, 2001 ; Nanda et al., 2003).
The main objectives of this study were to examine the main minerals and trace elements as well as to compare the quality of different types of local and branded honey from Sindh Pakistan.
Materials and methods:
Honey sample collection:
In Sindh, no form of scientific beekeeping available, the bee keeps its place in the plants and flowers of the regions. The 15 honey samples were found in different regions of Sindh Pakistan, eight local honey samples were collected in different regions and different sources with the help of the populations of these regions of Sindh (Table 1, Figure 1). The honey samples were collected in 250 ml plastic bottles correctly labeled with numbers, names and collection dates. Unwanted substances such as dead bees, wax sticks and comb particles were also removed before the analysis of these trace elements, local honey samples were collected in rural Sindh and seven samples bought different varieties of honey imported from the local market of Hyderabad Sindh. Sample analysis was performed within two months and every
Reagents and chemicals:
All of the chemicals and reagents used in this study were of analytical quality. Nitric acid hydrogen peroxide (HNO3) (H2O2) (Merch, Germany) was used for digestion of honey samples for mineral analysis. Stock standard solutions (1000 ppm) for minerals such as (Mg, Na, Ca, K, Fe, Cr, Ni, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn) were also used for the preparation of standards. calibration for instrumental analysis. Deionized water and double distillation were used throughout the preparation of reagents, reserve solutons, dilution, washing and rinsing apparatus for analysis.
Acid digestion of honey for mineral content:
The five gram sample of honey was taken from the 100 ml beaker and added 9 ml of pure HNO3 and 3 ml of H2O2 acids (Merch, Germany) and kept the sample in a hot plate for digestion. After digestion, the samples were removed from the hot plate, then cooled, then the honey samples were transferred to the volumetric flask (25 ml) and filled to final volume to mark with deionized water. The prepared honey samples were kept in the refrigerator. The samples were determined by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (Qadir et al., 2015; Pohl et al., 2017).
Instrument conditions used for metal analysis:
The elements Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cr, Co, Ni, Mn, Zn, Pb, Fe, Cu and Cd were examined using (Perkin Elmer AA-800, Singapore) an atomic flame absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) ) under the conditions mentioned by manufacturer. The examination of minerals was measured in triplicate (n = 3) with a delay time of 4 s and an integration time of 4 s (Lanjwani et al., 2019; Pohl., Et al., 2017). The instrument (FAAS) was controlled by Win Lab software with a computer (Table 2).
The minimum, maximum mean, and standard deviation of the statistical review of the outcome data were analyzed by Microsoft Office Excel 2013. The correlation coefficient (r), the principal component analysis (PCA) and the Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) between metal ions was calculated using a computer program (SPSS 22 Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) (Khuhawar et al., 2018).
Results and discussion
Honey contains many minerals, but we have analyzed the most abundant minerals such as the main minerals such as Na, Ca, K, Mg (table 3), the trace elements Zn, Fe, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni , Cd, Pb and Cu (Table 4). The potassium results were the highest of all the other elements. This may be due to the higher levels of potassium in plant tissue, the presence of minerals in honey that are good for humans.
Results of minerals in honey samples
The mineral results were found in descending order, as follows: potassium (K), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), copper (Cu) , nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr). K was found to be a major metal in all of the honey samples analyzed. The highest concentration of K (439 mg / kg) was found in local samples 4 (Mango Tree 4), and the lowest (225 mg / kg) was found in the sample (15 Islamic honey mixed with radiant jelly). The second most abundant element was Na and the results were found from 77.5-200 mg / kg, the highest concentration was found in the sample (Islamic honey mixed with radiant jelly 15) and the lowest was found in the sample (Mango Tree 4). The calcium concentration was found in a range of 46.1 to 98.1 mg / kg, the lowest Ca value was found in sample 10 (branded Hashami honey) and the highest in the sample 4 (mango). Mg is also the most abundant mineral and results were found from 31.3 to 73.8 mg / kg, the highest concentration was found in sample 5 and the lowest was found in the Sample 10. The K, Na, Ca and Mg found approximately more than 90% of the total weigh of the minerals tested. The results of the main minerals K, Na, Ca and Mg have been found more concentrated in local honey compared to branded honey. The color of the local honey samples was dark and the viscos and the color of the branded honey were light and also less viscos. The mineral trace also abundant in honey, it founded in trace level compared to major minerals The mineral trace also analyzed in Sindh honey and found a range of Fe 2.98–16.2 mg / kg, the highest concentration of Fe was found in sample 3 (tooth brush plant) and a concentrate
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